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UEMS at Buffalo


Topic – Equipment
1. Summary of required eqiuipment that is to be carried onboard all vessels at all times.
a. Personal Flotation Device (PFD) +
b. Visual Distress Signals (VDS)
c. Fire Extinguishers
d. Sound Producing Devices
e. Bell
f. Anchor
g. Back Fire Flame Arrestors
h. Mufflers

2. A Skippers Primary Concern
a. Safety of self and passengers
b. Survival/ Rescue
c. Compliance with the law

3.Personal Flotation Devices
Additional notes
a. Types
1. Type 1
*Minimum 22 lbs of buoyancy for adults and 11 lbs for children (under 12)
2. Type 2
*Minimum of 15 ½ lbs of buoyancy for adults and 11 lbs for children
3. Type 3
*Not designed to turn wearer face up but designed for the person to turn himself or herself face up.

*Best used on calm inland waters, or where rescue can be quick

4. Type V (Special Use Devices)
*Designed for use in white water, board sailing, and cold water
5. Type V (Hybrid Inflatable Device)
*Has minimal inhearent buoyancy
*Inflation chamber provides additional buoyancy
6. New Fully inflatable Devices
· No inherent buoyancy
· Manually inflated with CO2 cartridge
· Equiped with oral inflation tube
· Approved only for adults
· Not intended for weater skiing or PWC
· Not recommended for non swimmers
· Require user matenence to remain reliable
b. Carriage requirements
· One wearable PFD of the proper size for each person onboard or being towed
· Must be coast guard approved
· Must be readily accessable
· Must be in good condition
· Free of rot or tears
· Childred under 12 must wear a PFD at all times unless they are situated within a enclosed cabin
· Boats 16 feet and longer must carry atleast one type IV throwable device that is available for use at all times

Visual Distress Signals
1. Carriage requirements (New York States)
a. 3 Hand held flares and a distress flag
b. required on vessels that are:
1. Mechanically propelled
2. 18 feet or larger
3. Operating on any body of water in the state
2. Carriage requirements (Federal)
a. 3 day or night flares or;
b. 3 smoke signals or SOS lights or;
c. Distress flag and SOS light
d. Required on vessels that are:
1. Mechanically operated
2. 16 feet or greater
3. Sailboats 26 feet or greater
e. Any boat operating at night must carry night signals
f. Not required on waters less then 2 miles wide

1. Carriage Requirements
A. Outboard exempt if less then 26 feet and of open construction.

Sound Signals
1. New York Requirements
a. Required on all mechanically propelled vessels
b. Vessels less then 26’ may use mouth whistle
2. Federal requirements
a. Vessel less then 12 meters in length must carry some means of producing a sound signal
b. whistle must be capable of producing a blast 2 seconds in duration and be audible ½ mile in still weather.
B. Bell
a. Required on mechanically propelled vessels 26’ and greater in length (NY)
b. Required on all recreational vessels 12 meters and more
C. Anchor line
a. New York State requirement only
b. Required on all mechanically operated vessels
c. Must have a anchor with line or sufficient weight and strength to provide safe Anchorage.
D. Back Fire Flame Arrestor
a. Prevents heat and flames of an engine backfire from igniting any flammable Vapors that may be present in the engine compartment
b. Required on all gasoline engines, except outboards, installed after 4/25/40
c. Must be attached to the air intake
d. Must me USCG approved

Safe Loading / Safe Powering

1. Safe loading rules
a. Distribute the load evenly
b. Keep weight low, especially heavy objects
c. Don’t exceed the limit on the capacity plate
d. Secure objects from shifting

2.Safe loading rules
a. Step into the center of the boat
b. Stay low in the boat (Small boats)
c. Keep fingers inside the boat
d. Keep hands free. Load gear from dock after boarding
e. Once a small boat is moving, everyone should stay seated.

Boat Operations

1. Law requires that all boats maintain a speed of 5 MPH or less when within 100 feet of:
a. Shore
b. Raft
c. Dock
d. Anchored or moored vessels
e. Except when taking a skier form shore or landing a skier near shore
f. Local laws may extend this distence to 1500 feet
2. All vessels must proceed at a safe speed for the conditions:
a. Weather
b. Traffic
c. Proximity to shore
d. Operator experience
e. Vessel Handling Characteristics

B. Reckless Operation
1. Failure to exercise the degree of care necessary to prevent the endangerment of:
a. Life
b. Limb
c. Property
2. Recklessness may be the result of ignorance or complete lack of care
3. Examples of reckless operation
a. High speed in a concentrated boating area
b. High speed in restricted visibility
c. Playing chicken
d. Following too closely
e. Towing skiers in a unsafe area or crowded area
f. Operating near dams
g. Cutting off a regatta or marine parade
h. Overloading a boat
i. Passengers riding in the bow, gunwale, or transom while making way
j. Operating to closely to swimmers or divers

C. Boating while intoxicated
1. It is against New York State law to operate a boat while in an intoxicated state or while your ability is enhanced by alcohol or drugs
2. Intoxicated is defined by a BAC of .10% or greater
3. Drinking while boating is very dangerous and can affect
a. Balance
b. Coordination
c. Vision
d. Judgement
e. Hypothermia
4. Boating Stressors
a. Boat motion
b. Sun heat and glare
c. Wind
d. Vibration
e. Noise
f. Spray
· Cause fatigue and reduced ability
· Tends to increase the affects of alcohol on the boater
5. Zero Tolerance Law
a. Applies to any operator under the ae of 12
b. If a BAC is between .02 and .07
c. Penalties
1. Loss of operating privileges for 6 months
2. Fine of $125.00
d. Second offence
1. Loss of operating privileges for one year or age 21
e. If a BAC is greater then .07, it is treated as a regular BWI
6. Local laws
a. State laws allows cities, towns, and villages to regulate speed and boat operations out to 1500 ft from the shore
7. Law enforcement
a. On waters of the state you may see:
1. Local marine patrols funded by city, town, or village police department
a. Sheriff’s Department
b. NYS park police
c. NY state police
2. On Long Island Sound, New York Harbor, Hudson River or the Great Lakes You may also see USG patrolling the waters
A. Boating handling / maneuvering
1. Steering
a. When you steer a boat what you are doing is changing the direction of thrust from the propeller. When you turn to port, the propeller is turned to the port side so that the thrust pivots the stern to starboard which moves the bow of the boat

b. Two types
1. By propeller
2. By rudder
c. Steer by propeller (Most boats)
1. Outboards- steers by turning the whole motor by tiller or wheel
2. Stern drives- Steers by turning a lower unit that houses a propellor, generally by a wheel.
d. Steering by rudder (Inboard)
1. Propeller stays in one direction
2. The rudder moves to direct the propeller
e. Tiller steering- it is the opposite of using a wheel. What ever direction that you move the tiller, the opposite will happen

2. A boat moves similar to a car but it pivots at the opposite ends. A car pivots on the rear wheels while a boat will pivot around a point near the bow. Faster speeds increase turning response.
B. Anchoring
Two types commonly used:
Danforth Mushroom
Light Weight Limited
Good holding power Good for temporary anchoring
Small boats in protected waters

C. Anchor rode
a. Connection between the anchor and boat
b. Can be a line
1. Ok for temporary settings
c. Can be chain
1. Good for use on larger boats
2. To much weight for most recreational boats
3. Difficult to handle manually

D. A combination is best for most boats
a. 6 to 8 feet of chain shackled to the anchor
1. Provides sufficient weight to properly set the anchor
2. Will not chafe
b. Nylon line with pre-made hard eye splice shackled to the chain with a swivel
1. Relatively lightweight
2. Easy to handle
3. Nylon stretches to absorb the tension of the boat riding the waves.
E. Scope
a. Amount of anchor rode necessary to securely anchor the boat
b. usually 4 to 7 times the depth of the water

Rules Of The Road
A. Vessel- Any water craft that can float and can be directed from point A to point
B. Power Driven Vessel- A vessel that uses mechanical use to propel it through the
C. Sailing Vessel- By the use of sails, it moves through the water, once a motor
Is used to move it, it is a power driven vessel.
D. Stand On Vessel- (12) The vessel that has the right of way and is not required
to change course and speed.

E. Give Way Vessel- (12) The vessel that must keep clear of the Stand On vessel
Risk Of Collision (12)
A. Collisions are the leading cause of most boating accidents
B. Maintaining a proper lookout is the key to avoiding a collision
C. A Proper lookout is required by:
1. Every Vessel
2. At all times
Give Way Vessels Actions (12-14)
A. In order to avoid collision you can:
1. Turn
2. Reduce Speed
3. Stop
4. Reverse engines
B Any action taken must be:
1. Positive- a large enough change so that the other boat knows that you have taken action
2. In ample time- Take action early
3. Follow good seamanship- pass far away, watch out for traffic
4. Maintained until you are well passed the other boat
Hierarchy of vessels
A. There is a order to the types of vessels and who must stay out of the way of the Other.
B. The order is as follows:
1. Power Boats
2. Sailboats, using sails only
3. Fishing boats that are trawling with nets over the side or stern
4. Boats that are restricted in their ability to maneuver such as dredges or tug With a very large tow
5. Boats that are broken down or “Not Under Command”(NUC)

C. Boats towing skiers are considered regular power boats and do not get any special consideration
D. More maneuverable boats staying out of the way of less maneuverable
E. Not a substitute for good sense
Sound Signals (14)
Operating near commercial traffic
A. Watch out and stay clear of commercial traffic, you can be in danger because:
1. They can not slow down and stop easily
2. They can not see traffic that is close by
3. They usually must stay inside the channel
B. Precautions to be taken
1. If you can, stay out of channels, especially sailboats
2. Do not pass between a tug and its tow
3. Do not anchor or fish in a channel
4. Do not tie up to a channel marker
5. When in a channel, stay to the starboard side (Just like driving down the Street)
6. Cross a channel at right angles
Vessels lights (14)
A. Lights required:
1. Power boats- less than 12 meters (40 feet)
a. Mast head light
b. Side light
c. Stern light
d. The mast head and stern light may be combined into one light
2. Power boats- less than 50 meters (165 feet)
a. Mast head light
b. Side lights
c. Stern lights
d. MAY carry a second masthead light that is aft of and higher than the first
3. Power boats- 50 meters (165 feet) or longer
a. Mast head light
b. Side lights
c. Stern light
d. May carry a second mast head light that is aft of and higher then the first
4. Sail vessels
a. Side lights
b. Stern lights
c. No mast head light required
d. May show two all around lights red over green at the top of the mast in addition to side and stern lights
5. Sail vessels <20 meters (66 feet) in length may show:
a. Side lights and a stern light in a combined lantern at the top of the mast.
b. May not show red over green all-around lights if using a combined Above
6. Sailing vessels under 7 meters (23 feet)
a. Display required lights, if practical OR;
b. Carry a white light (Flashlight) to show in time to prevent a collision
7. Manually propelled boat
a. MAY exhibit side and stern lights OR;
b. Carry a white lights (Flashlight) to show in time to prevent a collision
When to report an accident
Loss to life
Injury requiring professional medical attention
Total damage above $500
Reporting requirements
Immediately to the owner of the other vessel or damaged properly (no hit and run allowed)
To police immediately if injury or fatality
Within 48 hours if injury or death
Within 5 days if property damage
When involved in an accident
All practical and necessary assistance
Not if it endangers your own vessel
Not if it endangers your passengers
Required by Section 41-3 of NYS Navigation Law
When approaching the scene of an accident
As above to the extent that you do not interfere with other rescue efforts, law enforcement.
Be wary of causing further damage.
Rescue Sequence
Try to convince them to swim out themselves Reaching them with a pole, ladder, stick, etc.
THROW – Rescue them from shore by;
throwing a line
throwing a floatable object
Use a boat to approach the victim and help them out
Don’t let them capsize your boat
don’t overload your boat and put yourself at risk
Get in the water yourself
Only if you are trained in water rescue/lifesaving techniques.
A. Fires
1. Types of fires
a. Class A
(1) leaves an Ash
(2) wood, paper, cloth, fiber rope, etc.
(3) use any extinguisher, follow with water
b. Class b
(1) found in the Bilge
(2) burning liquids, oil
(3) CO2 or dry chemical work best
(4) Never use water, it will spread the fire.
Class C
(1) carries a Current
(2) live/energized electrical wiring or equipment
(3) carbon dioxide is best
(4) dry chemical is acceptable but leaves residue
(5) never use water, it will conduct electricity
2. Fighting Fires
a. make sure your equipment is capable
b. extinguishers should be charged
c. nozzles should be clear of debris
d. extinguisher should be easily accessible to the operator
e. remove the extinguisher from its bracket
(1) P – pull the safety pin
(2) A – aim at the base of the fire
(3) S – squeeze the handle in ½ second bursts
(4) S – sweep from side to side
3. Responses to fires
a. have passengers put on their PFDs
b. if possible position the boat so the wind blows the fire away from the boat
c. use the extinquisher
d. call for help/use visual distress signals
e. abandon ship (only if wearing PFDs)
4. The best way to fight a fire is to prevent one with:
a. Good preventative maintenance
b. Safe fueling practices
c. Good housekeeping/cleanliness

Capsizing / Falling Overboard
75% of boating deaths are the result of capsizing / falls overboard
In most of these cases, a PFD would have saved that persons life.
Overloaded vessel
Rough weather / hazardous waters
Passenger behavior
(1) passenger riding on bow or gunwale
(2) passenger moving around the underway
(3) the skipper is responsible for the passengers
d. Sharp turns at high speeds
How to respond
(1) Grab a PFD if you’re not already wearing one
(2) Stay with the boat – the shore is farther than it looks
(3) Climb in or on the boat if possible
b. Falls overboard
1. Toss a float to the person who fell overboard
2. Have a passenger keep a eye on the victim and continually point to location
3. Approach the victim from downwind
4. Stop the engine
5. If possible, assist the person aboard, usually at the stern

1. Caused by prolonged exposure to cold water
2. Hypothermia results from the decrease in the body’s core temperature and
Will lead to death
3. Symptoms
a. Shivering
b. Confusion
c. Bluish color
d. Clumsiness
e. Unconsciousness
4. Survival
a. Wear a PFD
b. Do not shed clothes
c. Use the help or huddle positions
d. Do not thrash around in the water
5. Treatment
a. Apply warm moist to the head and body
b. Hot water bottles
c. Warm bath if the victim is conscious
d. Shared body heat
6. Never:
a. Give alcohol
b. Vigorously message the victims skin
D. Grounding
1. Obey danger buoys marking danger water
2. Obey channel markers showing safe channels
3. Know the waters you are in; use a chart if possible
4. If you run aground your vessel;
a. Make sure you did not put a hole in your hull
b. Remove weight from the boat
c. Pull the boat gently away; do not try to back it under power as you might damage the hull
d. If necessary, wait for a high tide to float your vessel
e. Call for assistance or use VDS

E. Collisions
1. Number one cause of accidents nationwide
2. How to prevent
a. Know the rules of the road
b. Operate safely and at reasonable speeds
c. Use navigation lights when required
3. If you have a collision
a. Check for injuries both on your boat and the other boat
1. Propeller cuts
2. Broken bones
3. Head, neck and spinal injury
a. Put on a PFD
b. Be aware of spilled fuel which may ignite
c. Radio for assistance

If you have any questions on anything, please ask during class or e-mail me


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